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Plant biotechnology


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Reproduction and propagation

Biotechnology is a new and promising technique for crop improvement and novel uses of plants, animals and micro-organisms. Its potential to reduce or eliminate major constraints to crop productivity and to enhance food quality are widely recognized world wide. Plant biotechnology is a set of biological techniques developed through basic research and now applied to research and product development through the use of plants.

In a Darwinian view of life, the fitness of an organism is measured only by its ability to replace itself with healthy, fertile offspring. Sexual reproduction is not the sole means by which flowering plants reproduce. Many species can also reproduce asexually, creating offspring that are genetically identical to themselves.

Plant propagation is the art and science of multiplication of plant material involving the application of the principles of plant growth and development. Successful propagation of plants requires an understanding of plant morphology, physiology and genetic principles to assist in devising methods and to cope with unexpected difficulties. Therefore, in recent years, biotechnology has provided a powerful means to supplement traditional method through the use of molecular genetics in cloning and sequencing of genes leading to the analysis of the genome structure, evolution and expression. Plant biotechnology encompasses broad fields of study, which includes plant tissue culture, genetic engineering and molecular markers. These disciplines are gradually becoming a functional aspect of classical breeding programmes. One of the areas of major impact is the control of plant growth and development, specifically vegetative and generative reproduction and propagation. Tissue culture manipulations play important role in plant breeding. Their routine application is determined by the possibility of recovering a great number of plants from cultures of desired cultivants

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