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Animal biotechnology


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Genome mapping, biodiversity of farm animals

Animal biotechnology has an interdisciplinary character and comprises elements from many branches, such as anatomy, endocrinology and physiology, andrology, ultrasound-technology, biochemistry, cell biology or molecular biology.

Evolution of human society is connected with breed of animal breeding. Since the time when the people started breed an animal they have been trying improving the important performance traits. The selection have been predominantly done on the basis of the phenotype and specific traits of animals´ ant their relatives. A scientifically based animal breeding has existed for approximately 50 years on the basis of the increasing knowledge of population genetics and statistics. Since the early beginning, this approach has incorporated biotechnological procedures for which artificial insemination is the pre-eminent example.

Biotechnological procedures which have been under development during the past 20 years have opened many new perspectives. Nowadays, the term "biotechnology in livestock" comprises an arsenal of reproductive-biological and molecular-biological procedures. Reproductive biology includes for example: artificial insemination, estrous synchronization, embryo transfer, cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, and many others. Molecular genetics comprises: genome analysis (sequencing, mapping, polymorphisms), molecular diagnostics (genetic defects, genetic descent, genetic diversity), functional genomics (expression patterns, interactions of genes), transgenics (additive gene transfer, knockout) etc.. One of new application of biotechnology is using the genetic markers too. During the past few decades many genes or genetic markers associated with genes that affect traits of interest in livestock have been found. These allow create a new and more effective selection and breeding programs which are applying in breed of livestock.

Biotechnology is very quickly developing branch of science. Many technologies have been applied in livestock breeding and many new technologies are being created and in future they certainly will be using. Opportunity for these methods is not only in livestock but in science or human medicine as well.

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