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Diagnostics and bioinformatics


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Genome analysing techniques

There are many proteins essential to good health that some people cannot produce because of genetic defects. These proteins include various blood-clotting factors causing hemophilia, insulin (resulting in diabetes), growth hormone (resulting in lack of proper growth), and other proteins, the administration of which corrects pathological conditions or results in other therapeutic benefits. Scientists have learned how to utilize plasmids to transfer human genes to bacterial cells.

Furthermore, these bacteria produce the human protein coded for by the spliced human gene. The protein is isolated from the bacterial culture, purified, and injected into those patients suffering from pathological conditions because their bodies cannot produce sufficient quantities of the protein. Protein-based biological drugs must be manufactured by living cells, which are genetically engineered to produce (or express) proteins that mimic the structures synthesized by humans.

Current production of these therapeutic proteins is being pushed beyond capacity by exponential growth in the biopharmaceutical industry.

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