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acesulfame potassium

Acesulfame potassium is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener), also known as Acesulfame K or...

acetyl coenzyme A

Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its...

acetylation

Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional...

actin

Actin is a globular, roughly 42-kDa moonlighting protein found in all eukaryotic cells (the only known exception...

acylation

In chemistry, acylation is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the acyl...

acylphosphatase

In enzymology, an acylphosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the following chemical reaction with...

adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular...

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleoside diphosphate. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with...

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate. ATP transports chemical energy...

ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. It is characterized primarily by...

adoptive cell transfer

Adoptive cell transfer is the passive transfer of cells, most commonly immune-derived cells, into a new recipient...

aerenchyma

Aerenchyma refers to spaces or air channels in the leaves, stems and roots of some plants, which allows exchange...

aerobic

Aerobic process or environment is one in which is a sufficient amount of molecular oxygen. The amount of oxygen is...

aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, the most...

agrobacterium tumefaciens

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name: Rhizobacterium tumefaciens) is the causal agent of crown gall...

aldose

An aldose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar) that contains only one aldehyde (-CH=O) group per molecule. The...

alkaloids

Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This...

alkylation

Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. The alkyl group may be transferred as...

allele

An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene or a genetic locus. Sometimes, different alleles can result...

allergen

An allergen is any substance that can cause an allergy. In technical terms, an allergen is an antigen capable of...

allergy

An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur when a person\'s immune...

alpha helix

Alpha helix is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins. It is a right-handed coiled or spiral...

amines

Amines are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines...

amino acid

Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain that is...

amyl nitrite

Amyl nitrite is the chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all...

amylases

Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in human saliva,...

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also referred to as Lou Gehrig\'s disease in American English and motor...

anaerobic

Anaerobic process or environment is one where atmospheric oxygen is not present. In such conditions, the...

anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the...

aneuploidy

Aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes, and is a type of chromosome abnormality. An extra or missing...

aneurysm

An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms...

anosmia

Anosmia is a lack of functioning olfaction, or in other words, an inability to perceive odors. Anosmia may be...

anthocyanins

Anthocyanins (also anthocyans) are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending...

antigen

An antigen is a foreign molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by...

antioxidant

An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation reactions can...

aorta

The aorta is the largest artery in the body. It is originating from the left ventricle of the heart and...

arginine

Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R) is an amino acid. The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino...

aRNA

Antisense RNA (aRNA) is a single-stranded RNA that is complementary to a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand transcribed...

aspartame

Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages....

assimilation

Assimilation in biology is the formation of  self cellular material from small molecules derived from food...

atom

The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively...

Autism

autochthonous specie

In biogeography, a species is defined as native (or autochthonous / indigenous) to a given region or ecosystem if...

autoclave

An autoclave is a device used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated...

autopsy

An autopsy—also known as a postmortem examination, necropsy (particularly as to non-human bodies), autopsia...

autosome

An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (i.e., not a sex chromosome). Autosomes appear in pairs whose...

autotrophy

An autotroph is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in...

auxins

Auxins are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen-like chara...


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