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P

p-n junction

A p–n junction is formed at the boundary between a p-type and n-type semiconductor created in a single...

patent

A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign...

pectin

Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It...

peptide bond

A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of...

peptides

Peptides are short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds. They are distinguished from...

pesticides

Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating...

pH

In chemistry, pH is a measure of the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion. Pure water has a pH very close to 7...

phagocytosis

Phagocytosis is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal...

phenotype

A phenotype is an organism\'s observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development,...

phenylalanine

Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an amino acid. This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar...

phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder characterized by a mutation in the gene...

phosphate

A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or...

phospholipase C

Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group. It is most...

phospholipids

Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid...

photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction. The...

phycobilins

Phycobilins are chromophores (light-capturing molecules) found in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of...

phylogenesis

In biology, phylogenesis is the structure of evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms (e.g. species,...

phytoestrogens

Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens functioning as the primary female sex hormone not generated within...

phytoncide

Phytoncides are antimicrobial allelochemic volatile organic compounds derived from plants. Various spices, onion,...

phytoplankton

Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of the plankton community. Most phytoplankton are too small to...

pinocytosis

In cellular biology, pinocytosis is a form of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell,...

plant tissue

Plant tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems: the epidermis, the ground tissue, and the...

plant tissue culture

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under...

plasmodesma

Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant tissue and...

plasmolysis

Plasmolysis is the process in plant cells where the cytoplasm pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of...

plastid

Plastids are major organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are the site of manufacture and storage...

ploidy

Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a biological cell. The haploid number (human sex cells,...) is...

polymerase chain reaction

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemical technology in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few...

polypeptide

A polypeptide is a string of amino acids linked together. Amino acids are the basic building blocks of proteins....

polyphenols

Polyphenols are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals...

polysaccharides

Polysaccharides are long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds....

post-translational modifications

Posttranslational modification (PTM) is the chemical modification of a protein after its translation. It is one of...

Prenatal diagnostics

prevalence

In epidemiology, the prevalence of a health-related state (typically disease, but also other things like smoking...

probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. According to the currently...

proline

Proline (abbreviated as Pro or P) is an amino acid, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. Its codons are...

protein biosynthesis

Protein biosynthesis is the process in which cells build or manufacture proteins. The term refers to a multi-step...

protein kinase C

Protein kinase C also known as PKC is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the...

protein kinases

A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them...

proteomics

Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Proteins are vital...

protoplast

Protoplast is a content of plant cell surrounded by cell membrane that results from the removal (dissolution) of...

pseudopodia

Pseudopods or pseudopodia (singular: pseudopodium) are temporary projections of eukaryotic cells. Cells that...

pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid is an organic acid, a ketone, as well as the simplest of the alpha-keto acids. The carboxylate...


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